Mathematics (Grade 8)
Core Curriculum

MST3 Standard 3 - Mathematics
Students will: •understand the concepts of and become proficient with the skills of mathematics; •communicate and reason mathematically; •become problem solvers by using appropriate tools and strategies; through the integrated study of number sense and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, and statistics and probability.


MST3.I.A Major Understanding 1 - Students will represent and analyze algebraically a wide variety of problem solving situations.

MST3.I.A.08.01 - Translate verbal sentences into algebraic inequalities

MST3.I.A.08.02 - Write verbal expressions that match given mathematical expressions

MST3.I.A.08.03 - Describe a situation involving relationships that matches a given graph

MST3.I.A.08.04 - Create a graph given a description or an expression for a situation involving a linear or nonlinear relationship

MST3.I.A.08.05 - Use physical models to perform operations with polynomials

MST3.I.A Major Understanding 2 - Students will perform algebraic procedures accurately.

MST3.I.A.08.06A - Multiply monomials

MST3.I.A.08.06B - Divide monomials

MST3.I.A.08.07 - Add and subtract polynomials (integer coefficients)

MST3.I.A.08.08 - Multiply a binomial by a monomial or a binomial (integer coefficients)

MST3.I.A.08.09 - Divide a polynomial by a monomial (integer coefficients) Note: The degree of the denominator is less than or equal to the degree of the numerator for all variables.

MST3.I.A.08.10 - Factor algebraic expressions using the GCF

MST3.I.A.08.11 - Factor a trinomial in the form ax squared + bx + c; a=1 and c having no more than three sets of factors

MST3.I.A.08.12 - Apply algebra to determine the measure of angles formed by or contained in parallel lines cut by a transversal and by intersecting lines

MST3.I.A.08.13 - Solve multi-step inequalities and graph the solution set on a number line

MST3.I.A.08.14 - Solve linear inequalities by combining like terms, using the distributive property, or moving variables to one side of the inequality (include multiplication or division of inequalities by a negative number)

MST3.I.A Major Understanding 3 - Students will recognize, use, and represent algebraically patterns, relations, and functions.

MST3.I.A.08.15 - Understand that numerical information can be represented in multiple ways: arithmetically, algebraically, and graphically

MST3.I.A.08.16 - Find a set of ordered pairs to satisfy a given linear numerical pattern (expressed algebraically); then plot the ordered pairs and draw the line

MST3.I.A.08.17 - Define and use correct terminology when referring to function (domain and range)

MST3.I.A.08.18 - Determine if a relation is a function

MST3.I.A.08.19 - Interpret multiple representations using equation, table of values, and graph

MST3.CM PROCESS STRAND 3 - Communication

MST3.I.CM Major Understanding 1 - Students will organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication.

MST3.I.CM.08.01 - Provide a correct, complete, coherent, and clear rationale for thought process used in problem solving

MST3.I.CM.08.02 - Provide an organized argument which explains rationale for strategy selection

MST3.I.CM.08.03 - Organize and accurately label work

MST3.I.CM Major Understanding 2 - Students will communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.

MST3.I.CM.08.04 - Use both written and verbal form to share organized mathematical ideas through the manipulation of objects, numerical tables, drawings, pictures, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, models, and symbols

MST3.I.CM.08.05 - Answer clarifying questions from others

MST3.I.CM Major Understanding 3 - Students will analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others.

MST3.I.CM.08.06 - Analyze mathematical solutions shared by other students

MST3.I.CM.08.07 - Compare strategies used and solutions found by others in relation to their own work

MST3.I.CM.08.08 - Formulate mathematical questions that elicit, extend, or challenge strategies, solutions, and/or conjectures of others

MST3.I.CM Major Understanding 4 - Students will use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.

MST3.I.CM.08.09 - Increase their use of mathematical vocabulary and language when communicating with others

MST3.I.CM.08.10 - Use appropriate language, representations, and terminology when describing objects, relationships, mathematical solutions, and rationale

MST3.I.CM.08.11 - Draw conclusions about mathematical ideas through decoding, comprehension, and interpretation of mathematical visuals, symbols, and technical writing

MST3.CN PROCESS STRAND 4 - Connections

MST3.I.CN Major Understanding 1 - Students will recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas.

MST3.I.CN.08.01 - Understand and make connections among multiple representations of the same mathematical idea

MST3.I.CN.08.02 - Recognize connections between subsets of mathematical ideas

MST3.I.CN.08.03 - Connect and apply a variety of strategies to solve problems

MST3.I.CN Major Understanding 2 - Students will understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole.

MST3.I.CN.08.04 - Model situations mathematically, using representations to draw conclusions and formulate new situations

MST3.I.CN.08.05 - Understand how concepts, procedures, and mathematical results in one area of mathematics can be used to solve problems in other areas of mathematics

MST3.I.CN Major Understanding 3 - Students will recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.

MST3.I.CN.08.06 - Recognize and provide examples of the presence of mathematics in their daily lives

MST3.I.CN.08.07 - Apply mathematics to solve problems situations that develop outside of mathematics

MST3.I.CN.08.08 - Investigate the presence of mathematics in careers and areas or interest

MST3.I.CN.08.09 - Recognize and apply mathematics to other disciplines and areas of interest, and societal issues


MST3.I.G Major Understanding 1 - Students will use visualization and spatial reasoning to analyze characteristics and properties of geometric shapes.

MST3.I.G.08.00 - Construct the following using a straight edge and compass: Segment congruent to a segment Angle congruent to an angle Perpendicular bisector Angle bisector

MST3.I.G Major Understanding 2 - Students will identify and justify geometric relationships, formally and informally.

MST3.I.G.08.01 - Identify pairs of vertical angles as congruent

MST3.I.G.08.02 - Identify pairs of supplementary and complementary angles

MST3.I.G.08.03 - Calculate the missing angle in a supplementary or complementary pair

MST3.I.G.08.04 - Determine angle pair relationships when given two parallel lines cut by a transversal

MST3.I.G.08.05 - Calculate the missing angle measurements when given two parallel lines cut by a transversal

MST3.I.G.08.06 - Calculate the missing angle measurements when given two intersecting lines and an angle

MST3.I.G Major Understanding 3 - Students will apply transformations and symmetry to analyze problem solving situations.

MST3.I.G.08.07 - Describe and identify transformations in the plane, using proper function notation (rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations)

MST3.I.G.08.08 - Draw the image of a figure under rotations of 90 and 180 degrees

MST3.I.G.08.09 - Draw the image of a figure under a reflection over a given line

MST3.I.G.08.10 - Draw the image of a figure under a translation

MST3.I.G.08.11 - Draw the image of a figure under a dilation

MST3.I.G.08.12 - Identify the properties preserved and not preserved under a reflection, rotation, translation, and dilation

MST3.I.G Major Understanding 4 - Students will apply coordinate geometry to analyze problem solving situations.

MST3.I.G.08.13 - Determine the slope of a line from a graph and explain the meaning of slope as a constant rate of change

MST3.I.G.08.14 - Determine the y-intercept of a line from a graph and be able to explain the y-intercept

MST3.I.G.08.15 - Graph a line using a table of values

MST3.I.G.08.16 - Determine the equation of a line given the slope and the y-intercept

MST3.I.G.08.17 - Graph a line from an equation in slope-intercept form (y = mx + b )

MST3.I.G.08.18 - Solve systems of equations graphically (only linear, integral solutions, y = mx + b format, no vertical/horizontal lines)

MST3.I.G.08.19 - Graph the solution set of an inequality on a number line

MST3.I.G.08.20 - Distinguish between linear and nonlinear equations ax² + bx + c; a=1 (only graphically)

MST3.I.G.08.21 - Recognize the characteristics of quadratics in tables, graphs, equations, and situations

MST3.M CONTENT STRAND 4 - Measurement

MST3.I.M Major Understanding 1 - Students will determine what can be measured and how, using appropriate methods and formulas.

MST3.I.M.08.01 - Solve equations/proportions to convert to equivalent measurements within metric and customary measurement systems Note: Also allow Fahrenheit to Celsius and vice versa

MST3.N CONTENT STRAND 1 - Number Sense & Operations

MST3.I.N Major Understanding 2 - Students will understand meanings of operations and procedures, and how they relate to one another.

MST3.I.N.08.01 - Develop and apply the laws of exponents for multiplication and division

MST3.I.N.08.02 - Evaluate expressions with integral exponents

MST3.I.N.08.03 - Read, write, and identify percents less than 1% and greater than 100%

MST3.I.N.08.04 - Apply percents to: Tax Percent increase/decrease Simple interest Sale price Commission Interest rates Gratuities

MST3.I.N Major Understanding 3 - Students will compute accurately and make reasonable estimates.

MST3.I.N.08.05 - Estimate a percent of quantity, given an application

MST3.I.N.08.06 - Justify the reasonableness of answers using estimation

MST3.PS PROCESS STRAND 1 - Problem Solving

MST3.I.PS Major Understanding 1 - Students will build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.

MST3.I.PS.08.01 - Use a variety of strategies to understand new mathematical content and to develop more efficient methods

MST3.I.PS.08.02 - Construct appropriate extensions to problem situations

MST3.I.PS.08.03 - Understand and demonstrate how written symbols represent mathematical ideas

MST3.I.PS Major Understanding 2 - Students will solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts.

MST3.I.PS.08.04 - Observe patterns and formulate generalizations

MST3.I.PS.08.05 - Make conjectures from generalizations

MST3.I.PS.08.06 - Represent problem situations verbally, numerically, algebraically, and graphically

MST3.I.PS Major Understanding 3 - Students will apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.

MST3.I.PS.08.07 - Understand that there is no one right way to solve mathematical problem but that different methods have advantages and disadvantages

MST3.I.PS.08.08 - Understand how to break a complex problem into simpler parts or use a similar problem type to solve a problem

MST3.I.PS.08.09 - Work backwards from a solution

MST3.I.PS.08.10 - Use proportionality to model problems

MST3.I.PS.08.11 - Work in collaboration with others to solve problems

MST3.I.PS Major Understanding 4 - Students will monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving.

MST3.I.PS.08.12 - Interpret solutions within the given constraints of a problem

MST3.I.PS.08.13 - Set expectations and limits for possible solutions

MST3.I.PS.08.14 - Determine information required to solve the problem

MST3.I.PS.08.15 - Choose methods for obtaining required information

MST3.I.PS.08.16 - Justify solution methods through logical argument

MST3.I.PS.08.17 - Evaluate the efficiency of different representations of a problem

MST3.R PROCESS STRAND 5 - Representation

MST3.I.R Major Understanding 1 - Students will create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.

MST3.I.R.08.01 - Use physical objects, drawings, charts, tables, graphs, symbols, equations or objects created using technology as representations

MST3.I.R.08.02 - Explain, describe, and defend mathematical ideas using representations

MST3.I.R.08.03 - Recognize, compare, and use an array of representational forms

MST3.I.R.08.04 - Explain how different representations express the same relationship

MST3.I.R.08.05 - Use standard and nonstandard representations with accuracy and detail

MST3.I.R Major Understanding 2 - Students will select, apply, translate among mathematical representations to solve problems.

MST3.I.R.08.06 - Use representations to explore problem situations

MST3.I.R.08.07 - Investigate relationships between different representations and their impact on a given problem

MST3.I.R.08.08 - Use representation as a tool for exploring and understanding mathematical ideas

MST3.I.R Major Understanding 3 - Students will use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena

MST3.I.R.08.09 - Use mathematics to show and understand physical phenomena (e.g., make and interpret scale drawings of figures or scale models of objects)

MST3.I.R.08.10 - Use mathematics to show and understand social phenomena (e.g., determine profit from sale of yearbooks)

MST3.I.R.08.11 - Use mathematics to show and understand mathematical phenomena (e.g., use tables graphs, and equations to show a pattern underlying a function)

MST3.RP PROCESS STRAND 2 - Reasoning & Proof

MST3.I.RP Major Understanding 1 - Students will recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics.

MST3.I.RP.08.01 - Recognize that mathematical ideas can be supported using a variety of strategies

MST3.I.RP Major Understanding 2 - Students will make and investigate mathematical conjectures.

MST3.I.RP.08.02 - Use mathematical strategies to reach a conclusion

MST3.I.RP.08.03 - Evaluate conjectures by distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information to reach a conclusion or make appropriate estimates

MST3.I.PS Major Understanding 3 - Students will develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs.

MST3.I.RP.08.04 - Provide supportive arguments for conjectures

MST3.I.RP.08.05 - Develop, verify, and explain an argument, using appropriate mathematical ideas and language

MST3.I.RP.08.06 - Support an argument by using a systematic approach to test more than one case

MST3.I.RP.08.07 - Devise ways to verify results or use counterexamples to refute incorrect statements

MST3.I.RP Major Understanding 4 - Students will select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof.

MST3.I.RP.08.08 - Apply inductive reasoning in making and supporting mathematical conjectures

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